1198 Averroes, Muslim philosopher born in Córdoba, dies.
1348 Pedro IV, King of Aragon, defeats the Valencian Union by force of arms and puts an end to the revolt of the nobles.
1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea.
1494 Christopher Columbus founded the city of Concepción de la Vega (Dominican Republic), on the island of Hispaniola.
1508 King Fernando granted the coat of arms to the city of Puerto Plata (island of Hispaniola), founded by Nicolás de Ovando in 1502.
1508 Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, Emperor Maximilian I of Austria and Fernando 'the Catholic' form the League of Cambrai to confront the Venetian Republic in the Italian Wars, one of the most important alliances in the Italian Wars.
1524 Francisco Hernández de Córdoba founded the city of Granada (Nicaragua), one of the first on the American mainland.
1531 The indigenous Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin claims that the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to him, whose cult is one of the most deeply rooted beliefs in Mexico and a reason for the union of the Hispanic peoples.
1534 Sebastián de Belalcázar founded the city of Quito (Ecuador), with the name of San Francisco de Quito.
1537 The Spanish captain Alonso de Cáceres founded the city of Comayagua, Honduras, in New Spain, with the name of villa de Sta Mª de la Concepción de Comayagua.
1545 Juan de Carvajal founded the city of El Tocuyo (Venezuela) in the province of Venezuela under the name of Nuestra Señora de la Pura y Limpia Concepción de El Tocuyo.
1548 The Spanish captain Alonso de Mercadillo founded the city of Loja, Ecuador, in the viceroyalty of Peru.
1568 Fernando Valdés Salas, Spanish politician and ecclesiastic, very influential during the 16th century, dies.
1572 The 'Siege of Haarlem' begins in present-day Holland, where the Spanish Tercios, commanded by the Duke of Alba and Governor of the Netherlands, Don Fadrique, defeat the 4000 Dutch rebels the following July.
1576 After almost five years of imprisonment without trial, Fray Luis de Leon is acquitted by the Inquisition. The reasons for his imprisonment were envy and quarrels between orders, and the denunciations of the theologian and professor of Greek, León de Castro.
1579 Saint Martin de Porres, known as 'The Saint of the Broom', Spanish friar of the Dominican Order, is born. He is the first mulatto saint in America.
1582 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel ('The Iron Duke') dies in Tomar (Portugal); Grand Duke of Alba, Governor of the Netherlands and Milan, Viceroy of Naples, Viceroy and Constable of Portugal, Grand Duke of Spain and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
1596 the October fair in Medina del Campo was extended for a month, until 9 January of the following year. Felipe II had just declared the state bankrupt and wished to delay one of the main economic engines of his kingdom.
1634 Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza dies in Madrid. Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza, Captain General of the Navy of the Ocean Sea and of the People of War of the Kingdom of Portugal, Knight of the Order of Santiago and Commander Major of Castile and of the Ricote Valley.
1640 In Catalonia (Spain), the Battle of the hill of Balaguer is fought as part of the Reapers' War. Two thousand rebels made a stand with two cannons, but the royalists attacked from the front and dispersed the defenders.
1641 Antoon Van Dick, Flemish painter, dies.
1659 The city of Paso del Norte was founded in New Spain and would later be divided into El Paso (United States) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico).
1683 Spain declared war on France for the fourth time.
1706 Pedro II of Portugal, regent since 1668 and King since 1683, dies.
1709 Jesuit Lucas Caballero founded the mission and town of Concepción (Chiquitos) in curent Bolivia.
1710 War of Spanish Succession: Victory of Bourbon troops over Anglo-Austrian troops at Villaviciosa during the War of the Spanish Succession, securing the Spanish throne for Felipe V.
1710 English defeat by the Franco-Spanish army at Brihuega during the War of the Spanish Succession.
1744 The city of Copiapó (Chile) was founded by Governor José Manso de Velasco, with the name of San Francisco de la Selva de Copiapó.
1759 After leaving Naples on 6 October and arriving in Barcelona on the 17th, Carlos III enters Madrid to assume the throne. He is 43.
1763 The first lottery draw is held in Spain, during the reign of Carlos III.
1774 The Sultan of Morocco, Muley Muhamed Ben Abdala, lays siege to the Spanish city of Melilla, which he fails to conquer.
1813 Peninsula War: Napoleon and Fernando VII sign the Peace of Valencay, ending the so-called "Spanish War of Independence".
1831 General Torrijos is executed, putting an end to the liberal military coups.
1843 Robert Koch, German doctor and discoverer of the tuberculosis bacillus, is born.
1890 Carlos Gardel, popular tango singer, is born.
1898 Spain signs the Treaty of Paris with the United States, renouncing its sovereignty over Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam.
1906 Dr. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Professor of Histology and Pathological Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine in Madrid, receives the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology.
1931 Niceto Alcalá Zamora is elected President of the Spanish Republic by Parliament.
1931 The Second Spanish Republic is proclaimed with the approval of the new republican constitution after Alfonso XIII resigns and goes into exile.
1993 UNESCO declares 4 Spanish churches in the Philippines as World Heritage Sites: Manila, Santa Maria, Paoay and Miagao.